Bibliographical Key

Sue Wilson Abbey

“The Ku Klux Klan in Arizona, 1921-1925,” Journal of Arizona History, 14 (Spring 1973): 10-30.

American Sentinel (Birmingham, AL)

The American Sentinel began weekly publication in fall 1922, declaring on its masthead that it was "The voice of and for ex-service men." By summer 1923, the masthead declared, “Recognized Klan Paper--By the Grand Dragon, Realm of Ala.” And, it declared in September 1923, it was "Alabama's Oldest Klan Paper." Only scattered issues from 1922 and 1923 have survived in the archives (Library of Congress, Samford University, and the Alabama State Archives), but contemporary newspaper directories indicate that it continued publishing until 1931.

Arkansas Traveller (Little Rock)

The Arkansas Traveller, published in Little Rock, is not recorded in contemporary newspaper directories, though the paper received an endorsement in October 1923 from the Badger American, a Klan paper published in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The issue of 3 November 1923 declares it to be the "Official Organ Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Arkansas." That issue, and the issue of 15 October 1923 (Vol. 1, number 27) are held at Archives, Knights of Columbus Supreme Office, New Haven, Connecticut, SC-11-1, File 166. No other issues have been located.

Mary Wear Briggs

“The Road by Home: Harrison County, Iowa, in the 1920s,” The Palimpsest, 73(Summer 1992):88

Broad Axe (Chicago)

The Broad Axe, an African American paper, and highly critical of the Ku Klux Klan, was published between 1897 and 1927 at Salt Lake City, Utah; St. Paul, Minnesota; and at Chicago. It has been digitized and can be examined at the Chronicling America website.

Norman D. Brown

Hood, Bonnet, and Little Brown Jug: Texas Politics, 1921-1928 (College Station: Texas A. & M. Press, 1984)

Call of the North (Minneapolis)

The Call of the North was published in 1923-1924 at St. Paul, Minnesota. It advertised itself in the Indiana Fiery Cross of 14 December 1923, as “A Voice of Militant Protestantism.” The final issue appeared on 15 February 1924, with the announcement that the "Minnesota Fiery Cross, Official Klan Organ, Starts With Next Week's Issue." Microfilmed copies are held at the Minnesota Historical Society.

Carlock: Ku Klux Klan Carlock Unit No. 71 (Carlock, Ill.) records

1924-1925, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University, Atlanta, GA

The Carter-Klan Documentary Project

David M. Chalmers

Hooded Americanism: The First Century of the Ku Klux Klan (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965)

Colonel Mayfield’s Weekly (Houston)

Colonel Mayfield’s Weekly was published in Houston, Texas, by Billie Mayfield, an officer in the Texas National Guard and the Klan candidate for lieutenant governor in 1922, from 24 September 1921 until soon after Mayfield sold the paper in summer 1924. The Oklahoma Herald (Muskogee, Oklahoma) for 11 October 1921 captured Mayfield’s enthusiasm for the Klan: "Col. Mayfield, down in Houston, Texas, likes the Ku Klux Klan so much that he has started a newspaper all of his own to boost the organization along." Microfilmed copies are held at the Texas State Library.

Nancy Bergmann Cuthbert

"A Social Movement: The Norfolk Klan in the Twenties," Virginia Social Science Journal 2 (1967): 101—18

FF: Fellowship Forum (Washington, D.C.)

Craig Fox

Everyday Klansfolk: White Protestant Life and the KKK in 1920s Michigan (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2011)

Frank Granger

“Reaction to Change: The Ku Klux Klan in Shreveport, 1920-1929,” North Louisiana Historical Association Journal, 9(Fall 1978):219-227.

Julian LaRose Harris Papers

Emory University, Atlanta

Elizabeth Dorsey Hatle

The Ku Klux Klan in Minnesota (Charleston: The History Press, 2013)

Roger Hux

“The Ku Klux Klan in Macon, 1919-1925,” Georgia Historical Quarterly, 62(Summer 1975):155-168

Indiana Fiery Cross (Indianapolis, IN)

Imperial Night Hawk (Atlanta, GA)

Kenneth T. Jackson

The Klan in the City, 1915-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967).

Philip Jenkins

Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925-1950 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997)

Emerson Hunsberger Loucks

The Ku Klux Klan in Pennsylvania: A Study in Nativism (Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Press, 1936)

Kourier Magazine (Atlanta, GA)

Missouri Klan Kourier (St. Louis)

Missouri Valley Independent (St. Joseph, MO)

Monitor (Aurora, MO)

Monterey County Weekly (California)

Article printed September 20, 2001. (see also )

Muncie Post-Democrat (Muncie, IN)

New Menace (Aurora, MO)

Michael Newton

The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001)

New York Evening World (New York City)

North Dakota American (Fargo, ND)

Oklahoma Herald (Muskogee, OK)

Official Monthly Bulletin (Atlanta), University of Georgia Library, 1926-1928

Nicholas Pruitt

“Broadening the Scope: The High Plains Klan of the 1920s,” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook, 82 (January 2006):156-169

Michael W Schuyler

“The Ku Klux Klan in Nebraska, 1920-1930,” Nebraska History 66 (1985): 234-256

Center of Southwest Studies (Fort Lewis College, Colorado)

Duane A. Smith, “Removing the Mask: The Ku Klux Klan in Bayfield, Colorado,” Colorado Heritage, (Autumn 2005):19

St. Louis Patriot

Searchlight (Atlanta)

Joseph W. Sullivan

“Rhode Island’s Invisible Empire: A Demographic Glimpse into the Ku Klux Klan,” Rhode Island History, 47(May 1989): 74-82.

Richard K. Tucker

The Dragon and the Cross: The Rise and Fall of the Ku Klux Klan in Middle America (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1991)

Tuskegee Institute Newspaper Clipping Files

T. W. K. Monthly (Birmingham, AL)

Washington Post (Washington, DC)

Norman Fredric Weaver

“The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan,” (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1954)